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Today our planet is home to 6. By there will be 9 billion. Population growth mainly occurs in rapidly developing nations, but can we sustain it? How will the power shift? This book explains the causes and effects of population growth and the effect of aging populations in the Western world.
Discusses the causes of population growth, examines the problems associated with overpopulation, and explores the effects of an aging population on the Western world. Although all socio-economic classes are reflected in migration to cities, migrants from rural areas are disproportionately poor, and inadequate planning is often a result of a weak political will to support them.
Yet, as the report pointed out, migrants are especially motivated individuals.
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It is not only the sheer numbers of people involved that makes migration worthy of attention. All around the world, populations of cities are now more diverse than surrounding rural areas.
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In this way, migrants who come to cities can help diversify the networks that the city can draw upon. For instance, by linking cities to broader global networks.
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Perhaps the most famous example of this is Eastleigh in Nairobi. So how are cities coping and changing with this influx of both internal and external migrants?
While the vast majority of migration policies are set on a national basis, it is increasingly common for cities to develop their own approach to integrating people who come to settle. For example, in the US, many cities support legislation calling for city police forces not to cooperate with certain forms of federal immigration control, which are deemed to be prejudiced against migrant groups.
In , the cities of Los Angeles and Chicago passed non-cooperation measures, and in , New York City became the largest city to do so.
Yet much of the research into the impact of migrants on cities concerns international migrants in wealthier countries. A key contribution of the WMR has been to turn the focus of migration to cities in poorer countries. This migration is often shorter distance, from rural areas that are relatively close. Rural to city migration is a much larger movement of people, at a global scale, and is accompanied by a very different set of issues.
Adequate housing is probably the most significant of these.
Overcrowded world? : global population and international migration
Rather, problems tend to arise as a result of poor planning and forced behaviour change — particularly forced relocation. These issues are exacerbated when informal settlements develop outside the administrative boundary of the city. For instance, in the Sri Lankan capital, Colombo, as many as 60, people are being relocated due to redevelopment of under-served, informal areas of the city. The project I worked on examined the impact of violence on migrants in the city.
Through the surveys conducted with groups of these relocated households, we witnessed the enormous contribution that local community and neighbourhood organisations can make to help those coping with forced relocation and the disintegration of migrant communities. Migration to cities significantly contributes to urbanisation.
And if well planned, migration can enhance the dynamism of cities making them healthier, more profitable and more interesting places to live. Read more on urban migration: Pets in Victorian paintings — Egham, Surrey. The history of pets and family life — Egham, Surrey.