Ashe, like Johnson's other students, was schooled in the courteous acceptance of defeat and the humble pride of victory. In and , Ashe took the U. Junior Indoor singles title, which got him noticed by a Missouri coach, Richard Hudlin, a friend of Johnson's. It soon became apparent that if Ashe was to pursue tennis, he'd have to leave Richmond, a raciallysegregated city that precluded Ashe from playing whites.
With winter approaching and the city's indoor courts closed to blacks, Ashe took Hudlin up on his suggestion that he spend his senior year in St. Once there, Ashe learned to leave his solid baseline game and became one of the original serve-and-volley players. He graduated from Sumner High School with the highest grade point average.
But what gave him the greatest happiness was the realization of Dr. Though it had denied him access to competition several times on account of his race, the USLTA listed Ashe as the fifth-ranked junior player in the country and a Junior Davis Cup team member. Numerous universities offered the young athlete and scholar a place in their freshman class.
Ashe chose UCLA, which boasted one of the country's best collegiate tennis programs, and intended to study architecture or engineering. However, Ashe's coach urged him to major in business administration so he could better balance his studies, tennis practice and travel, ROTC, and the hours of work his scholarship required he give to the college. The strategy paid off. Two years and numerous tournaments later, Ashe was ranked sixth. Under the tutelage of coach J. Morgan, who'd scouted Ashe, and Pancho Gonzalez , Ashe honed his aggressive court style, with a powerful backhand and speed-of-light serve.
This was the ammunition that made him such a success on the faster grass and hard court surfaces. Davis Cup team, won the Johnston Award for his contribution to the sport, and was the country's number-one collegiate competitor. It is as much a tribute to Richmond and the state of Virginia as it is to me. Ashe was inducted into the army in , the year he graduated from UCLA. During the two years Ashe served in the army, first as deputy brigade commander in Fort Lewis, Washington, and then as a second lieutenant, his tennis career stalled somewhat.
After boot camp, he was offered the position of assistant tennis coach at the United States Military Academy at West Point , New York , which he accepted, but it still didn't leave him much time to develop his game. He did reach the U. Indoor Championship finals in , won the U. Clay Court Championship the following year, and at one point had a singles Davis Cup record, but he missed a number of major tournaments and lost in the third round in straight sets to Australian John Newcombe at the U. Professional tennis players who'd experienced Ashe's topspin backhand or powerhouse serve knew he was a competitor with the makings of a champion.
Though still an amateur, he'd won numerous tournaments against the sport's best players, and his Davis Cup team performance was admirable. But he hadn't taken a single Grand Slam event. No one knew better than Ashe himself that in his college years behind him, his two years of army service complete-he would have to put everything he had into tennis if he wanted to be successful as a professional. Upon leaving the military Ashe was in excellent physical condition, and he was mentally prepared to be a winner.
That summer he played well at Wimbledon, though he fell to Rod Laver in the semi-finals. But he was victorious in both the U. Nationals men's singles title and the first U. Open, a feat no man had ever accomplished. In addition, his Davis Cup team took the title from the Australians, a win Ashe cherished above all others. He once said he never lost sleep over any tournament other than the Davis Cup. To Ashe, there was an enormous difference between losing as an individual and losing as a representative of the United States.
The first black man to win a Grand Slam title and now the top-ranked player in America, Arthur Ashe had achieved true celebrity status. Photographs of him appeared on magazine covers, his name appeared on tennis-related products, major corporations signed him on as spokesman, and he offered tennis clinics for American Express and Coca-Cola.
He was appointed tennis director at the Doral Resort and Country Club in Miami , Florida , and even made the tabloid gossip pages when he dated fashion models and stars such as singer Diana Ross. Ashe put his hard-won fame to use. He turned professional in and immediately began to work to protect players' rights and interests. With his colleagues he created the International Tennis Players Association, acting first as treasurer and later as the union's vice-president.
Arthur Ashe Biography
He repeatedly spoke out against the apartheid policies of the South African government and succeeded in having South Africa expelled from Davis Cup competition. With his stature, Ashe's public outcry garnered world attention to the oppressive rule of apartheid, and in Ashe was selected to act as goodwill ambassador to Africa. Department of State sent him to Kenya , Nigeria , Tanzania , and Uganda , where he met with government leaders, students, and diplomats.
The following year, as a member of a delegation of tennis players, Ashe visited Cameroon , Gabon , Senegal , and Cote d'Ivoire. It was at a tennis club in Cameroon where Ashe noticed the young, talented Yannick Noah , who he arranged to have sent to France for tutelage under the care of the French Tennis Federation.
Over the course of the next few years, Ashe's game seemed to stagnate. A new generation of competitors, such as Bjorn Borg and Jimmy Connors , were testing his dynamic serve-and-volley game with power, precision, and an almost appalling sense of confidence.
By , Ashe's ranking had sunk to fifth place. Some blamed his political activism for his deteriorating game, others his age he was Ashe steeled himself, determined to win the World Champion Tennis title that spring in Dallas , Texas. But an even bigger victory was in sight. When Arthur Ashe stepped onto the grass at Wimbledon and bowed to the Royal Box, the last thing on his.
The date was July 5, , and Ashe was playing for the men's singles title. The challenge would require his complete concentration. His opponent was one of the top-seeded players, twenty-two-year-old fellow American Jimmy Connors. The two had battled before and in all three of their matches, Ashe had been the loser. Sports fans on both sides of the Atlantic expected the brash and self-taught Connors to "slaughter" Ashe, as Ashe noted in his memoir Days of Grace. In addition, only days before Wimbledon, Connors had filed a lawsuit against Ashe for libel.
Ashe was not intimidated. He'd stood by his principles, having accused Connors of playing matches for big purses while refusing to join the United States squad for the international Davis Cup competition, where players are paid in the currency of patriotic honor, not hard cash. Despite the lawsuit, Ashe retained his cool and even demeanor. Ashe won Wimbledon by finessing the hard-hitting Connors with a brilliantly strategic game of defensive tennis. He played conservatively, hitting balls deep then rushing the net, keeping Connors off balance.
Also, Ashe had decided that rather than try to outpower the southpaw, he'd hit the ball softly, breaking Connors' rhythm. It would also force Connors to generate his own power, rather than simply redirect the ball using Ashe's velocity.
Ashe's plan for the historic match would later help some of the decade's best players — Bjorn Borg , Ivan Lendl , and John McEnroe — undercut Connors' phenomenal, dominating power game. With a , , , victory at Wimbledon, he not only obtained the number-one ranking in the world that year but saw the culmination of a lifetime of struggle. By the day's end, Ashe had a date with the photographer, the stunning Jeanne Marie Moutoussamy.
Ambassador to the United Nations. Ashe's heel surgery had been successful, but another injury followed, and, compounded with recurrent eye inflammations, he decided to lay low for the year. Though he took the Australian Open doubles title, with his partner Tony Roche, he was forced to skip Wimbledon and the U.
This caused his ranking to fall, which in turn led the sportswear company Catalina to drop Ashe as a key endorser. Ashe was forced to come up with other means of providing an income. Ashe's academic background in business and his real-life experience with some of the largest corporations in America made him comfortable acting as a consultant and entrepreneur.
During the course of his life, he had a business relationship with Head USA, a manufacturer of sports gear that kept Ashe on board even though it lost accounts in the South due to Ashe's race. Doral Resort and Country Club maintained its association with Ashe, which had special meaning for Ashe since the nearby Admiral Hotel refused to accommodate him during a tournament in Miami, yet housed all the other junior players, who were white. In addition, Ashe became a columnist with Tennis magazine and the Washington Post, and was a consultant with clothing manufacturer Le Coq Sportif.
Ashe also acted as consultant with the Aetna Life and Casualty Company, where he had been in charge of minority recruitment, and would later be honored by the offer of a seat on their board of directors. By Ashe still wasn't ready to give up tennis. He played thirteen tournaments but reached the finals in only two. Then, on July 30, a tremendous pain in his chest woke the athlete from a sound sleep. Within an hour, the pain would recur twice. Each time it subsided he went back to sleep. The next day, Ashe gave two tennis clinics in New York and while signing autographs, was struck again.
Arthur Ashe had had a heart attack. In December he underwent a quadruple bypass surgery.
He would never play tennis again. But Ashe was optimistic and tried to get back into competition shape. It was not to be. On April 16, , Ashe announced his retirement from competitive tennis. Yet he remained actively involved in the sport. That year he was made captain of the U. He worked as a sports commentator for ABC and HBO television, gave innumerable clinics to inner city children, wrote articles and books on the sport, made a tennis video, and in was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in Newport, Rhode Island.
In , Ashe underwent a second bypass operation. Weak from the procedure, he was given a blood transfusion to try to bolster his strength and speed his recovery. In , Ashe needed an operation on his brain, and tests following that surgery were positive for the virus that causes AIDS. Doctors concluded that Ashe had contracted HIV from the transfusion he was given following his second heart surgery. At the time the news was a death sentence. However, this did not stop Ashe from struggling for social justice.
In he was arrested outside the South African embassy in Washington, DC, while protesting against the country's institutionalized racism. He talked it over with his wife and decided to scoop the paper. In a public press conference, Ashe not only admitted that he had AIDS but kicked off his campaign to educate the public about the disease and set up a foundation to defeat the disease. He spoke out against discrimination against homosexuals in general and AIDS sufferers for the remainder of his life. But he never asked for pity. When a well-meaning reporter for People magazine suggested that having AIDS must be the greatest burden Ashe had ever had to bear, he corrected her.
Even now it continues to feel like an extra weight tied around me. Ashe completed his final memoir, Days of Grace, just two days before he died. The book concludes with an open letter to his daughter, Camera, then only six years old she was born December 21, , whom he wrote was a "daily affirmation of the power of life. Arthur Ashe's legacy is manifold. Rarely have sports celebrities taken on social issues with such passion and commitment as did Ashe.
He broke color barriers both in his own country and abroad, and fought tirelessly for social justice, founding the African American Athletic Association to mentor student athletes and helping preserve the history of African-American athletes with his contributions to the A Hard Road to Glory. In , when President Nelson Mandela, freed from his South African jail after twenty-seven years, was asked which American he'd most like to meet, his immediate response was "Arthur Ashe.
Yannick Simon Camille Noah was born on May 18, , in Sedan, France, and at the age of three he moved with his family to his father's native country of Cameroon.
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In , while attending a tennis clinic at a local club, Noah was given the chance to play with Ashe, who was making his second goodwill tour of Africa. Ashe, moved by the youngster's plight and his talent, arranged to have Noah enrolled at the French Tennis Federation FTF training center in Nice, France, where he trained for five years. One year short of graduation, Noah left school to focus exclusively on tennis.
In , Noah won the French junior title and the Wimbledon junior title, after which he went professional. In , Noah took the Australian Open and U. Open singles titles, and in made it to the semis and finals at the French Open and Wimbledon. His Grand Slam performances earned him the top ranking in France in At age twenty-three he won the French Open, and a year later he and partner Henri Leconte won the doubles title there.
Noah stayed off the tennis circuit for a year to recover from injuries and the devastating death of his grandfather. He came back to his game to win the Italian Open in , but what looked like an auspicious return to the game was only transitory.
Arthur Robert Ashe | rocafahunage.tk
He played his way to the finals of many tournaments and achieved the ranking in of third in the world in singles play and first in doubles, yet the more prestigious titles eluded him. After pursuing a music career for a few years, he trained the French team in for the Davis Cup and the Fed Cup, the premier international team event for women. In both events, France was victorious. Increasing minority presence in all sectors of society was a vision to which Arthur Ashe dedicated his life. We need to pull over, fill up at the library, and speed away to Congress and to the Supreme Court, the unions and the business world.
Davis Cup Captain Arthur Ashe. Much More Than Tennis. Ashe stressed importance of striving for excellence outside sports. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Retrieved September 14, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.
The first black man to reach the top ranks of international tennis, Arthur Ashe is the very personification of the educated gentleman-athlete. Arthur Ashe was certainly a phenomenon during his playing career and remains one to this day. His ancestry is Native American and Mexican as well as black. While Ashe was a youngster growing up in segregated Richmond, his father ran the largest park for blacks in the city. Lipper described Arthur Ashe, Sr. Born Arthur Robert Ashe , Jr. University of California , Los Angeles , B. Amateur tennis player, ; professional tennis player, ; has finished first at least once in the U.
Open, Wimbledon, and Davis Cup championships and was number-one-ranked player in the world, and ; elected to the United States Tennis Hall of Fame c. Writer, lecturer, tennis coach, and television commentator, United States Army, first lieutenant, He told the Chicago Tribune: I was too light for football and not quite fast enough for track, which left tennis as a logical choice.
The choice might have been more logical for a white youngster in those last days of nationally legislated racism. Black players — with the outstanding exception of Althea Gibson — were almost nonexistent in the highest amateur and professional ranks. Still Ashe persevered, taking encouragement from the success of baseball player Jackie Robinson. He was also encouraged in his all-black school in Richmond, where he says he received an excellent education. Ashe began playing tennis at the age of seven in the playground that his father maintained.
Walter Johnson, a black doctor based in Lynchburg, Virginia. In addition to his medical practice, Johnson enjoyed coaching promising black tennis players and provided them with proper equipment and courts. Ashe was playing as a nationally ranked amateur by the time he turned In both and he won the junior indoor singles title, a feat that brought him to the attention of Richard Hudlin, a tennis coach in the St.
Hudlin invited Ashe to St.
Louis to continue his tennis training. Ashe accepted the offer and finished high school there.
By he was the fifth-ranked junior player in the United States. When he was allowed to play Ashe often found himself surrounded by a sea of white faces, both on and off the court. He was the lone black star in his sport and he remained ever conscious of the example he was setting. Ashe told the Wichita Eagle that despite his success, his self-esteem suffered from the treatment he had received from whites while growing up in the South. Morgan and tennis legend Pancho Gonzalez, who lived near the campus.
In Ashe earned a place on the Davis Cup team and earned a victory in his first national contest, the U. The following year saw him ranked sixth nationally among amateurs, and in — after singles victories in the Davis Cup finals and a tour of Australia — he became the second-ranked amateur in the nation.
The latter victory earned him an invitation to the U. Open tournament; it came as little surprise to tennis observers when Ashe won the Open and became the top-ranked player in the nation in Even in those glory days, however, the tennis star felt isolated by his race. He told Sports Illustrated: Displaying a composure well beyond his years and a vast repertory of power backhands, Ashe remained among the top-five-ranked tennis stars internationally between and Observers noted his relaxed demeanor on the court and the calm but grim determination that often unnerved his more volatile opponents.
Few in the audience realized that Ashe was far more emotional than he seemed. Before important matches he would sometimes be stricken with nervous stomach cramps; Ashe has since admitted that he wishes he could have been more free with his feelings during those crucial years. Ashe turned professional in and played numerous important matches throughout the following decade. His game peaked in when he won both the prestigious Wimbledon Singles championship and the World Championship Tennis Singles.
By that time the changing racial climate had improved sports opportunities for black athletes and Ashe was hailed as a pioneer in his field: He was the first black man to win at Wimbledon and the first to receive a number-one ranking internationally. In , at the age of thirty-five, Ashe suffered a major heart attack. He underwent quadruple bypass surgery, vowing to return to tennis as soon as he healed. Upon recovery, however, he still suffered chest pains and was threatened with further surgery.
He announced his retirement from tennis in April of But for a couple of years afterwards you still think you could get in shape again and play another season or two. So Arthur Ashe the tennis star became Arthur Ashe the author, lecturer, and social critic. Few former athletes of any race have put their college educations to greater use than has Ashe. In he was invited to give a seminar on the history of blacks in sports at Florida Memorial College. When he went to the library to research the topic, he found very little documentation of black accomplishment in professional sports, especially before the days of Negro League baseball.
Having had two heart attacks, Ashe guarded his health with great care. In, , he underwent brain surgery. Ashe was then diagnosed with AIDS. He had contracted the virus from an unchecked blood transfusion during his heart surgery in Though diagnosed in Ashe kept his illness a secret until a newspaper threatened exposure in He made the announcement at a press conference. He also solicited help from the professional tennis world to raise funds and increase awareness of this deadly disease.
Already an activist — he spoke out against apartheid in South Africa , racism — he became a champion of human causes. He spoke on the importance of educating young minds. He spoke about the tragedies of the inner cities. He protested against the U. He questioned the lack of funding for AIDS research.
During his last months, Ashe wrote a final biography entitled Days of Grace: He covered the social issues that were important to him, his living with AIDS and his family, especially his daughter, Camera. A memorial service was held in St. Though known for his accomplishments on the tennis courts, Ashe was a symbol of grace and hope to all. Price of Sports Illustrated stated it best: Wonderful careers spark, blaze and flame out in a decade; the typical champion spends his remaining 50 years in a kind of endless cast party, full of backslaps and soggy nostalgia.
He knew that his place in history gave him authority, a platform he could either sleep on or speak from for the rest of his days. He made his choice. It made him different. At a Glance …. Upper described Arthur Ashe, Sr. Full name, Arthur Robert Ashe , Jr. Writer, lecturer, tennis coach, and television commentator, —. Every day we got the same message drummed into us. Today Ashe is recognized as an important spokesman on the issues of minorities in collegiate and professional athletics.
He serves as a television commentator at tennis matches, a sports consultant at tennis clinics, and writes columns for the Washington Post. Having had two heart attacks and undergone brain surgery, Ashe guards his health with great care. A dedicated family man, Ashe lives with his wife and daughter near New York City. He also retains close ties to his brother and sister, who live in the South.
I have the experience and the courage and the background to say some things about some subjects I feel I have expertise in. And Tve definitely plugged a huge gap in the knowledge of African-American history. It is an incredible history of achievement. S Army in taking breaks from time to time to pursue his tennis career.
He was discharged from the army in In , while serving as 1st Lieutenant in the U. S army, he won the U. S Amateur Championship against Bob Lutz. He also won the U. S Open National Championship in the same year, becoming the only player to have won both the championships in the same year.
He won his second Grand Slam singles title at the Australian Open in In , Ashe played the Wimbledon Final against Jimmy Connors, who was to-1 favorite in the final. But Ashe played brilliantly and defeated Jimmy to win the Wimbledon in an excitingly unexpected match. The professional career of this exceptionally talented player was unfortunately cut short by health problems and a heart attack forced him to retire in He played the U.
S Open final against Tom Okker of Netherlands and defeated him to clinch the title in It was his first ever Grand Slam title. He won the Australian Open against Dick Crealy in This was a major victory for him since he had lost the finals to Roy Emerson in and He became the first non-Australian to win the title in 11 years.
What made this victory even more special for Ashe is the fact that it was the much younger Jimmy and not he, who was the favorite to win the match. Ashe was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in as an honour for his contribution to the sport of tennis. He was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award of the U.
The medal honours individuals who have made "an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors. Arthur Ashe married photographer Jeanne Moutoussamy in They had one adopted daughter. He suffered a heart attack in and underwent bypass surgery.