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Letters concerning legacies in the chapter on advocacy expose women's liability to have the short end of testamentary negotiations, even if not wholly defrauded. Here, as Carlon observes, Pliny both showcases his personal integrity in the face of varied forms of duplicity and also compensates for his own losses of blood kin by adopting surrogate family members.

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Classical World

Built on the Johns Hopkins University Campus. Sherwin-White's historical and social commentary in represented a watershed in the study of Pliny the Younger's letters. By comparison, reference to, representations of, and relationships with women in Pliny's correspondence have not figured significantly in Plinian scholarship. Indeed, it is only in the last decades of the twentieth century that this important facet of Pliny's epistolary project has figured to any extent besides limited, illustrative excerption in treatments of his work.

In doing so, she hopes to fill the considerable academic lacuna dealing with the appearance of women in Pliny's letters. Key to Carlon's approach is explicit determination where possible of prosopographical detail and historical background for the women under consideration. Carlon then organises Pliny's women into five groups, based on familial and thematic connections, which form the basis for the ensuing chapter-length studies: A lucid examination of prosopographical relationships pp.

In the ensuing study of nine letters pp.

A useful feature of each chapter, Carlon provides a brief conclusion pp. Corellius Rufus -- "adviser, guide, companion in seeking offices, entering them, and serving in them" p. Carlon shows how eight letters mentioning Corellius and surviving female family members Corellius' sister, Corellia, his wife, Hispulla, and his daughter Corellia Hispulla serve to illustrate the personal virtues and political disposition Pliny regarded as "fundamental to shaping his character and demeanor" p.

Essential to this purpose, according to Carlon, is Pliny's deliberate integration of letters that address his Corellian associations with the Stoic relationships discussed in the previous chapter. Interestingly, while Pliny's desire to generate a worthy exemplar for his own political identity relegates his use of the Corelliae to a demonstration of his careful maintenance of personal friendship amicitia and social bonds iura , this "close and on-going association Carlon considers Pliny's personal interaction with female relatives and women illustrating the proper and improper behaviour of legatees in Chapter Three "Pliny, Champion of the Vulnerable", pp.

First, in eight letters mentioning the women of Pliny's family his wife, Calpurnia, her aunt, Calpurnia Hispulla, Pliny's mother-in-law, Pompeia Celerina, his mother, Plinia, and a woman identified only as adfinis , Calvina , Carlon demonstrates the manner in which Pliny delineates himself as "a proper provider and caretaker of the women under his tutelage" p. Pliny's beneficence is not limited to family members, however, and, in a further study of eight letters mentioning certain women Sabina, Pomponia Galla, Attia Viriola, Verania Gemina, and Domitia Lucilla in relation to the distribution of estates and oversight of testamentary provisions, Carlon draws out the significant role which proper creation and execution of wills played in civil Roman society.

Whether the correspondence concerns female members of his wives' families or unrelated women requiring his assistance, Carlon is able to define what consistently informs Pliny's epistolary purpose: Here, we should note a codicil to the incidental social information gleaned in Chapter Two.

Bryn Mawr Classical Review

The women mentioned in these letters may be independent and in possession of substantial means, but they still require the protection of men like Pliny, men of extreme propriety, to defend their interests or wishes. Cambridge University Press, Thirty-eight letters addressed to or featuring women are subjected to a combination of prosopographical and literary analysis, as C.

The idea is interesting, the result disappointing.

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A short conclusion is followed by five stemmata illustrating known and suggested family relationships, a list of all references to women in the Epistles and a statistical analysis of the corpus, of which more in a moment. The usual end matter follows.

Classical World

As well as having a novel thematic thrust, C. The formula within each chapter of running through the letters twice, once for prosopographical and once for literary analysis, makes the relevance of the one to the other sometimes hard to perceive; and the question is never asked how many of the connections, certain or supposed, Pliny expects his readers to spot.

Such interest in Realien makes the lack of historical circumspection the more surprising. Hopkins showed long ago that an elite girl could well have been married at twelve M. Some bibliography would similarly help with speculations The Classical Review vol. Discussion of imperial women in the Panegyricus pp.